Negotiating the Relationship Between Addiction, Ethics, and Brain Science PMC

What does it mean to have an arguably non-existent model guiding whole areas of medical research and practice? Ghaemi is one of the few scholars to have given a sustained answer to these questions (Ghaemi 2010). He argues that, in practice, “the biopsychosocial approach” often devolves into unprincipled eclecticism. The BPSM’s all-inclusive nature has left its adherents free to select and mix and match different perspectives—including incompatible dogmatisms—in a haphazard way. The social dimension is considered to be vitally important, it is the immediate interpersonal domain that is most proximal to the person who develops an addictive disorder.

  • One problem is that physicians do not possess the epistemic competence needed to treat gun violence disease as it is defined.18 Their training does not qualify them to redesign society’s power structures or to accurately identify and treat personal or cultural propensities for violence.
  • The TMD literature illustrates how wayward discourse can set research on a chaotic path.
  • Importantly, the study provides strong evidence of very positive and sustained outcomes, across two TCs, supporting a diverse application of the TC model.
  • This claim coincides with a recent emergence of a global advocacy movement that seeks to construct the use of drugs as a human right (Elliott, Csete, Wood, and Kerr 2005; Lines and Elliott 2007).

Understanding the Impact of Close Relationships

  • But even for those who’ve successfully quit, there’s always a risk of the addiction returning, which is called relapse.
  • Primary features of the model are shown in boldface; variables exemplifying heroin-assisted treatment are shown in italics.
  • For alcohol consumption, significant LOS group differences were found for number of drinking days at 3 months and 9 months.

We considered that to be sufficient to answer the research question about how the informants perceived and reflected on the recovery process after they were discharged from inpatient treatment; hence data saturation had been achieved [20, 24]. The informants were recruited by telephone, messenger or mail by one of the researchers. The recovery concepts have underpinned a long history of measuring treatment outcomes for mental health issues and substance use problems. The most common model is the clinical recovery model, which aims to minimise core symptoms, such as the problematic use of substances or mental health issues [6]. A personal and social approach understands the process of being in recovery as an ongoing, non-linear process.

3 Biopsychosocial Plus Model

a biopsychosocial approach to substance abuse

Missing data were found to be missing at random, and were replaced using the Predictive Mean Matching (PMM) method for Multiple Imputation [43]. PMM draws on real values in the dataset, thereby avoiding issues with negative or fractional count of drug episodes. Consumption use variables were mostly count variables (number of drug episodes) with over-dispersion and zero inflation at follow-up data points.

Neuroethics and the Brain Disease Model

Advances in neuroscience are changing how mental health issues such as addiction are understood and addressed as a brain disease. Although a brain disease model legitimizes addiction as a medical condition, it promotes neuro-essentialist thinking, categorical ideas of responsibility and free choice, and undermines the complexity involved in its emergence. We propose a ‘biopsychosocial systems’ model where psycho-social factors complement and interact with neurogenetics. A systems approach addresses the complexity of addiction and approaches free choice and moral responsibility within the biological, lived experience and socio-historical context of the individual. We examine heroin-assisted treatment as an applied case example within our framework.

a biopsychosocial approach to substance abuse

About this article

Substance Use in Young Swiss Men: The Interplay of Perceived Social Support and Dispositional Characteristics

  • Substantial effort by investigators to follow up with participants contributed to the low attrition rates.
  • These ways of handling human problems can have negative consequences, especially if the problem at hand is actually medically unexplained or a non-disease.
  • Proponents of a ‘war on drugs’, for example, believe that laws and policies that are lenient towards substance use are linked with greater prevalence of use and criminal activity.
  • However, they also encourage physicians and other practitioners to move beyond considerations of organic pathology by understanding each patient as a person whose being is fundamentally social and psychological, in addition to biological.

Lascia un commento

Il tuo indirizzo email non sarà pubblicato. I campi obbligatori sono contrassegnati *

WordPress Appliance - Powered by TurnKey Linux